Urban Warfare Analysis Center Catalog

 

The Urban Warfare Analysis Center (UWAC) conducts multidisciplinary analysis on complex topics related to the current and future battlefield.  Multidisciplinary analysis brings the insights from emerging technology, cognitive psychology, cultural analysis, economics, and regional history to topics relevant to force-on-force and asymmetric conflict, covering a gamut from the changing tactics in suicide attacks to leadership training within the armed forces. 

 

Since 2009, the Urban Warfare Analysis Center has provided support to the US Army Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center (TRAC) Analysis Development Group (ADG).  The ADG conducts research on the near future battlespace.  This includes incorporating forecasts of what will influence the future of conflict into current training, analysis, methods, models, and tools (MMT), and wargaming.  The UWAC has produced three types of deliverables to support the ADG mission:

 

  • White Papers.  When the TRAC tasks the UWAC to research a “big idea” topic, the product is a White Paper.  As described below, some of these topics have included analyzing future conflict in Megacities, non-western leadership approaches, and conceptual models for cognition in wargames and simulations.  Each research product involves a thorough literature review of the subject, presents a primer on the subject for follow-on research, and presents recommendations on how to incorporate insights from these subjects into MMT.  Some white papers include datasets developed by the UWAC to assist in simulations that incorporate the subject. 

 

  • Datasource Research.  The ADG tasks the UWAC to develop a “dataset on data,” a repository of available datasources to a topic of interest for current or planned models and simulations.  The datasource product catalogues, codes, and tags each assessed database according to a defined criteria, so the end user can retrieve the data the suits their projects. 

 

  • Requests for Information (RFI).  RFIs are targeted research questions for a specific topic to assist TRAC researchers. These are either quick turn or long term RFIs.  Unlike White Papers, the UWAC does not conduct analysis on the subjects.  The RFI requires outreach to offices inside or outside the military for information or data collected by the office, and this process entails calling points of contact until the right person is found.

 

Since working with TRAC, the UWAC has been tapped a world class research institution that provides a high return on investment for the organization.  Below is a list of deliverables the UWAC has completed for TRAC and the ADG since 2009.

White Papers:

 

The Russian Battles in Grozny (2019)

In support of the military engagements dataset (see below), the UWAC developed a case study that outlines the relevant lessons learned from Russia's interventions in Grozny in the 1990s.  The battles in Grozny represent some of the most violent urban combat in the past 25 years involving a near peer military.  The Chechen fighters exploited dense urban terrain, subteranean environments, and foreign fighters to conduct sophisticated ambushes against the Russian military.  This case study covers the historic, cultural, political, and tactical factors that influenced the three battles of Grozny, and in doing so, shows how a near peer military can adapt and learn from its mistakes.  The UWAC conducted a professional development seminar at TRAC-Fort Leavenworth in March 2019 on this topic.

Network Operations and the Current Army Network (2018)

This paper responds to a Request for Information (RFI) on behalf of the US Army Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center (TRAC) regarding Network Operations (NetOps). This response addresses the question, “With the ongoing changes to the Army Network, how are Network Operations currently conducted?” The research methods for answering this question include outreach to entities in the Army that contribute to the architecture of the Army network and the execution of NetOps, reviews of analytical works on the current Army network, and an assessment of Army doctrinal approach NetOps.

The Future Megacity and US Operations (2017)

The UWAC provided support to TRAC research on the technological, political, and social factors that US forces will encounter in a future megacity (population of at least 10 million) around the 2035-2040 timeframe.   

 

Best Practices in Narrating the Results of a Deterministic Simulation (2017)

Methods, Models, and Tools (MMT) are vital to combat analysis because they allow researchers to investigate how inputs influence results in simulated combat.  Analysts apply results from MMT to advise procurement, force structure, training, and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) development.  The ADG trains analysts on how to interpret the results from MMT for research purposes and how to present the results to fellow analysts and decision makers.

 

To maximize the effectiveness of a model to inform analysis and decision-making, the analyst needs to prepare for questions about the model’s results.  A poor defense of a model undermines the effort placed in planning, constructing, and executing the model.  The audience may challenge the model’s results from a philosophical perspective (“why did you choose a deterministic model over another type of model?”), from a data validation perspective (“if we have the right model, how do we know if we have the right data?”), or from a blunt bottom-line-up-front perspective (“why should we trust the results of this model?”). 

To assist in this function, the ADG tasked the Urban Warfare Analysis Center (UWAC) to research best practices for describing the results of a deterministic model or simulation.  In order to answer this question, “Why should we trust that what your model says is true?,” the UWAC reviewed how authors have described the results of their deterministic models, researched the theoretical underpinning of modeling and model validation in general, and conducted outreach to developers and users of deterministic models to enquire their thoughts on best practices.  Our approach has been to take the perspective of the audience that may not be familiar with the context of modeling, and would expect certain concepts addressed in the presentation to advance the veracity of the results. 

 

In this research, we developed a white paper that (1) provides a primer for incoming TRAC analysts on the philosophical background of specific types of models, so that we can (2) present the best practices in narrating the results of a deterministic model.  The two purposes are interrelated, as one best practice is to communicate the basics of what modeling can and cannot do to an audience that may not know the limitations in modeling.  The UWAC produced a presentation on the paper, given to analysts at TRAC in September 2017.

 

Rhetoric of Analysis (2016)

The Analysis Development Group (ADG), as a component of the US Army Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center (TRAC), promotes best practices in analysis, modeling, wargaming, and similar concepts relevant to preparation for the future battlefield. Within these objectives, the ADG identified that an overview of the classic skill of rhetoric would be beneficial to incoming analysts. The ability is to persuade decision makers on the veracity of one’s analysis is timeless and relevant to modern military analysis. The ADG requested the Urban Warfare Analysis Center (UWAC) to develop a series of papers on the rhetoric of analysis. This paper supports an umbrella of products that will act collectively as a primer on analysis, communication, wargaming, modeling, and other relevant purviews for TRAC analysts. The tools of rhetoric strengthen the analyst’s ability to persuade decision makers, to avoid invalid and unsound arguments, and to dissect the strengths and weaknesses of competing arguments. This paper covers three main subjects related to rhetoric and analysis:

 

  • How is the role of rhetoric relevant to modern analysis? There are three key rhetorical appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. We review how these classical terms relate to modern day analysis, as well as their role in any presentation of analytical findings.

  • How do cognitive blindspots influence poor and fallacious argumentation? No one starts out trying to commit an error in reasoning, and yet smart people do. We describe how cognitive biases and heuristics lead the researcher down the path of weak argumentation and fallacious thinking. Understanding why we have these biases and how they influence our thinking assists in checking our assumptions that guide our research, analysis, and conclusions.

  • What are the basics of argumentation (inductive and deductive reasoning) and types of fallacies? The bulk of this paper reviews the types of argumentation and fallacies. We review the components of argumentation, particularly how to break down an argument (distill), so that errors in reasoning are identifiable.   

 

The UWAC conducted a professional development seminar reviewing our research on cognitive biases, presented at TRAC-Fort Leavenworth in July 2016, and invited to conduct it again at TRAC-White Sands in March 2018.

 

Wargaming Best Practices (2016)

The UWAC developed a primer on the history of military wargaming, the types of problems wargames seek to explore, and the types of wargames.  This included a literature review on over 90 sources on wargaming, which was cataloged into a dataset to assist the researcher in identifying the right source based on problem set and wargame type.  The handbook includes a matrix that matches wargame type to the intended solution the wargame intends to solve or investigate.

 

Cognitive Modeling (2015)

The UWAC developed a primer on cognition, decision-making, and cognitive modeling, in order to improve the decision-making functions in models and simulations such as AWARS and Combat XXI.  The refinement of inputs and outputs for decision-making in modeling provides greater nuance in analysis for current models, as well as creates a structure that can be adapted across future models.   Thus, TRAC asked the UWAC to research cognitive modeling for two objectives:

 

  • Review previously established cognitive models and architectures that can inform current and future TRAC decision-making models

  • Take a “back to basics” approach on cognition research to identify the core categories of decision making (called cognition models) for the individual entity in a model which will inform the type of functions available for cognitive models.

 

The Megacity Dilemma:  Doctrine, the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield, and Carrying Capacity (2015)

The Chief of Staff of the Army’s Strategic Studies Group (SSG) has identified megacities as the most likely future environment wherein US forces will operate kinetic and stability operations, based on urbanization rates, population growth, and instability factors.  The complexity of the megacity as a system in density and size creates additional problems for planning urban operations.   During Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), the notion of the Three Block War emerged, representing how coalition forces had to provide security in one block, humanitarian relief in the next block, and engage with force-on-force combat in the third block.  This concept demonstrated the complexity of units handling multiple necessary objectives in a condensed space with minimal separation, and the damaging consequences in achieving pacification if the wrong action was performed.  If urban areas shrink time and space, a megacity shrinks and condenses economic, societal, and cultural conflicts into a confined space for complex operations.  Operations in a megacity can be viewed figuratively as a Three Floor War, where operations of different types of engagement with the population and enemy can occur in the same building. 

 

  • This leads to the megacity dilemma: how to prepare for and adapt the hard earned lessons learned from population-centric counterinsurgency in OEF and OIF to a future environment that condenses the population of Iraq (approximately 33 million)—with all of its challenging ethnic and sectarian conflict spread over 170,000 square miles—into 5,000 square miles, approximately the size of Tokyo.

 

In order to prepare for this future operating environment, the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center (TRAC) tasked the Urban Warfare Analysis Center (UWAC) to contribute to the overall megacities research program by identifying key gaps in doctrine and intelligence analysis in preparation for operating in megacities. 

 

The document reviews (1) the interdisciplinary discourse of megacities from sociological, economic, and cultural perspectives, and (2) current military doctrine and discussion on urban operations within a megacity context.  The purpose of such an approach is to apply research and analysis from academic perspectives to the military assessment of megacities, to ask what is not being asked. The UWAC researched peer reviewed journals in order to identify core social, economic, and cultural characteristics of megacities that need to be understood in planning megacity engagement.  From this research, the UWAC developed the Megacity Frame, a conceptual representation of the key tent pole trends among the type of megacities that US military forces will most likely intervene. Briefly stated, the Megacity Frame identifies the role of different types of informal processes (e.g., informal employment, informal security) in the sustainability or lack thereof in a megacity, differentiated from traditional urban environments because of scale and density.  The frame provides a perspective to ask questions, collect data, and prioritize information to ensure core characteristics of a megacity are incorporated in analysis and preparation for engagement in a megacity.

 

The UWAC depicted the threat of an overburdened carrying capacity on a megacity through the image Framework for Carrying Capacity, Actual Deprivation, Relative Deprivation.  The image overlaps Actual, Required, and Perceived Carrying Capacity as a means to identify gaps in the populace’s expectations of urban governance that can contribute to instability.

 

Handbook on Western and Non-Western Leadership Theories (2014)

Understanding leadership skills remains a core objective for the Army, not only for force training, but for models and simulations that seek to include leadership concepts in their processes.  In support of leadership development, the UWAC researched multidisciplinary leadership theories to support a variety of initiatives for TRAC, including leadership wargaming, models and simulation, and training.  To assist in these efforts, the UWAC contributed leadership research projects to support these specific targets.  This paper is a primer that incorporates all this research, including:

 

  • A presentation of military doctrine on leadership (specifically Army Doctrine Publication 6-22 and Counterinsurgency Field Manual 3-24)

  • A review of internally conducted analysis within the Army of military doctrine for process improvement

  • The relationship between military doctrine and leadership theories from business and psychology

  • Descriptions of the premises and rationale of the most influential leadership theories, presented as a chronological encyclopedia of fifteen leadership theories

  • A summary of the most influential cultural frames of reference for leadership in selected Non-Western societies, particularly China, India, and the Arab World. 

 

Assessing the State of Cyber-threat Data (2013)

TRAC tasked the UWAC to identify available data and information on cyberattacks, cyber-threats, and cyber-vulnerabilities, with particular attention to data that can populate models of cyberattacks on US Army operations below the division level.  Cyberspace creates new vulnerabilities in military operations, as adversarial entities can perform devastating attacks from locations geographically removed from the intended target.  Military networks are not the only potential targets of a cyberattack. Adversaries can target domestic civil and economic infrastructure, as well as those of host and allied nations, to directly and indirectly affect military operations abroad.  The UWAC outlined the type of threat vectors in cyberwarfare (physical, social, and logical), and how those vectors can damage and degrade military operations abroad.

To execute this task, we conducted two main forms of research: 

 

  • Literature review on the nature of the cyber-threat as related to the US military, US Government, domestic infrastructure, and private industry.

  • Outreach to experts in cyberwarfare and cyber-crime in order to guide our research and provide insight into available data on cyber-threats and their effects on systems

 

The end product presents on overview of cyber-attacks and resiliency.  In addition, the UWAC developed (1) a cyber-threat data spreadsheet that describes available data sources on cyber-attacks for the modeler to extract relevant sources and (2) a diagram

 

Variables to Predict Causalities in Non-Major Combat Operations (2013)

Risks to non-Major Combat Operations (Non-MCO) are varied and complex.  The dynamic socio-cultural environment that sustains irregular warfare creates a challenge to diagnose all the factors that can lead to casualties in Non-MCOs.  In order to help understand this complex environment, TRAC tasked the UWAC to develop a list of predictive variables for possible casualties in Non-MCOs.   The list of variables is intended to assist TRAC’s contribution to the US Army Medical Department (AMEDD) model for decisions on size and capabilities of medical facilities within Non-MCOs. 

 

In order to develop the list of variables, we performed a brief literature review on military doctrine, military theory, and published statistical models related to irregular warfare.  We built the variables list from the mindset of an intelligence analyst on the ground, whom has been tasked to assess the lethality of any number of adversaries and risks that threaten coalition forces and host nation entities.  From this method, we assessed four risks influenced by unique explanatory variables that determine the viability of the threat.  These risks are attacks from adversaries, accidents during missions, health issues that cause attrition, and fratricide resulting from friendly. 

 

These categories organize the variables gathered from the literature review.  The most complex risk to model is an attack by an adversary, because it incorporates economic, social, and cultural variables that affect human motivation.  Military theory and statistical models aided in contributing variables to the Political, Social, Economic Environment.  We reviewed previously published statistical models that regress social variables on dependent variables related to irregular warfare, such as the number of terrorist incidents in a given country and membership selection into insurgent groups.  From this review, we included the independent variables that are shown to have a statistically significant effect on irregular warfare into our own list, citing the usage and context of the variables in the statistical models. 

 

Through this research, we compiled a list of over 250 explanatory and moderating variables that influence the risks that cause casualties in Non-MCOs.   The explanatory variables affect the risks that create casualties, and the moderating variables lessen or heighten the ability of the explanatory variables to create casualties.  The UWAC developed a frame for selecting variables into a function for casualties titled Casualties in Non-Major Combat Operations Predictive Variables.

 

 

 

Data Source Reports:

Casualties in Military Engagements (Ongoing)

The UWAC developed a dataset that catalogs the number of casualties at the engagement level (division or below) in conflicts since World War II.   The dataset calculates average number of casualties for invaders and defenders across the length of the engagement.  In support of this project, the UWAC conducts professional development seminars outlining the influential PMESII variables that contributed to the outcome and number of casualties suffered by both sides.  

 

Science Fiction and the Future Battlefield (Ongoing)

One ADG objective is investigating how emerging technology will influence the battlespace, particularly in effects beyond direct force-on-force conflict.  Within the Department of Defense (DoD), various entities are conducting research on how to improve combat armor, how competitive nation-states may militarize space, and how next generation non-lethal technologies can be used in stability operations.  For the ADG, understanding these and similar factors is valuable, but researching the second or third order consequences of emerging technologies on the full spectrum of operations (from situational decision making of the soldier to the cultural impact of new technologies on the attitude of host nation civilians) is valuable as well. 

 

Technology and “Black Swans.”  One method to research the impact of future technology on conflict is to review how science fiction authors have brainstormed new technologies.  This includes the future technology ideas (FTI) that authors have conceived, the consequences these FTIs may have on future conflict, and the grand scope of how these FTIs may influence society.  Many current technology applications and future objectives are tied to ideas that seemed fantastic thirty years ago, from autonomous robotic systems to armored soldiers.  Science fiction is essentially a genre based on scenarios, “what will happen to Y if X is invented.”  Science fiction may not be the analytical rigor of accepted military analysis, but futuristic writers are conducting a form of analysis, introducing new ideas and developing a rationale to explain how those new ideas impact society and various systems.  Science fiction authors brainstorm possible technological “black swans,” heretofore surprising changes in technology that can greatly impact the global order and its sub-systems.  Although by definition a “black swan” event is unpredictable, brainstorming possible black swan events reduces the pool of unknowns, so that planners can hedge against possible shocks to the system under study.

 

Research Questions.  Because science fiction has introduced ideas that become current technologies, cataloguing the FTIs can contribute to future scenarios, considerations for planning, and insight into second and third order consequences on full spectrum operations.  Thus, the population of science fiction novels published recently becomes a repository of sources to extract ideas and thought experiments for future research on military operations.  Thus when surveying this pool of ideas, the primary research question is “what new technology ideas from science fiction may influence the future battlespace?” Following from this is a secondary research question, “…and how do these science fiction authors explore the impact, limitations, exploitable fissures, and similar ‘black swan’ type dilemmas that may result from these technologies?” 

 

To assist in this function, the ADG tasked the Urban Warfare Analysis Center (UWAC) to survey FTIs in science fiction, and how such technologies have been used, exploited, subverted, and extended through the imaginations of the authors.  The UWAC catalogued this research in two products:  a Sources Spreadsheet, which lists all identified technologies from the survey, and tags each with relevant characteristics for the end user to sort and identify, and through the Datasources Report, which describes the research process, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts.

 

The Science Fiction and the Future Battlefield spreadsheet tags each technology according to the “Big 8 Initiative” categories, which are Active Protection, Future Vertical Lift, Cross Domain Fires, Combat Vehicles, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Expeditionary Mission Command, Cyber and Electromagnetic Warfare, and Soldier and Team Performance and Overmatch.  The spreadsheet lists over 180 technologies from 20 sources, and calculates how many sources match the Big 8 initiative categories and which categories have the least representation among futurists. 

 

Subterranean Warfare Workbook (2017)

Tasked to extract examples of how tunnels, basements, and similar subterranean elements have occurred in warfare, dating to World War 2.

 

  • Produced a workbook of over 20 sources that present examples of sewer, tunnel, and basements in war.  Tagged each source by era, relevance, and brief summary of subterranean events cited from each source.

 

Irregular Warfare Database on Databases (2009-2013)

Over a four year period, TRAC tasked the UWAC to develop a repository on available irregular and asymmetric warfare data.  This repository, known as the “Database on databases,” catalogues data collected and managed by military units, US Government (USG) agencies, international organizations, universities, Non-Government Organizations, and other research entities that develop unique data and information in support of irregular warfare analysis.   Throughout the course of this assignment, the data emphasis centered on Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Sudan, South Sudan, China, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Transnational Networks.  

 

Throughout this process, the UWAC has developed a system for characterizing and describing each assessed database, providing relevant characteristics to aid modelers in identifying proper data to fit specific needs.   We define a database as an information repository, which can include query-based quantitative data engines and collections of text reports that include data in its analysis.  Throughout this entire research process, the UWAC reached out to over 700 points of contact (POC) for databases and information repositories, assessing over 400 open source databases and 140 classified databases.  Our methods included leveraging previous studies and contacting database managers in order to identify relevant databases and data streams.  The UWAC proceeded to develop two Database on Databases spreadsheets — one unclassified, one classified — to track, describe, and tag each database assessed. Descriptive attributes for each database include the format of data accessible to the end user, the countries covered by the database, and sources of data collection. In addition to the spreadsheets, the UWAC developed data architecture diagrams that demonstrate the feed of data from the originating database to a replicating database, and the scope of the data feed relationships among the databases. Throughout the course of the project, the UWAC has:

 

  • Developed a list of groups collecting data within the assigned environments

  • Identified the types of data being collected by each group, including where, when, and how the data are collected

  • Identified where the data are maintained and the accessible format of the data

  • Tagged the data’s relevance to Political, Military, Economic, Information, and Infrastructure (PMESII) variables

  • Assessed the data’s applicability for use in Methods, Models, and Tools (MMT)

  • Developed multiple High Value Target (HVT) data source lists based on different needs of the end user, one list for global comparative data and one list for rich qualitative research

  • Data Architecture Diagram that demonstrates the relationship of current and proposed data collection entities within this AOR.

 

This database assessment included annual reports documenting the research process and providing key judgments as to the current state of IW data collection and transformation.

 

In addition to assessing irregular warfare data, we have also included descriptions of statistical models that attempt to explain which data variables influence phenomena related to irregular warfare.  Key attributes in our description of these models include: identifying the dependent variable, the independent variables regressed on the dependent variable, the statistical significance of the tested variable, and the areas of the globe relevant to the statistical model.  This review of previously published statistical models is a resource to help guide future Human, Social, Cultural, and Behavioral (HSCB) models. 

 

 

 

Requests for Information:

 

Network Operations (2018)

In response to the upcoming (and undefined) changes to the Army network, tasked to answer the question, “How are Network Operations conducted in the Army?” 

 

  • Conducted outreach to individuals connected to Network Operations (NetOps).

  • Researched how Networks Operations are conducted by reviewing field manuals and documentation critical of the current Army tactical network.

  • Designed images that (1) depict components of the Army network, from the tactical to the enterprise level (The Army Network – Deployed, Home Station, Enterprise), (2) depict the Army organizational hierarchy for NetOps (NetOps and Levels of Command) and (3) depict the geographic location of Signal Commands across the globe responsible for NetOps (Signal Commands and Areas of Responsibility)

  • Produced a 30+ page report from all research (Network Operations and the Current Army Network), and a 60 page Appendix that includes relevant sections from Army publications on specific NetOps tasks

 

Soldier Load Carriage (2017)

Tasked to review the research methods of competing assessments for the average weight carried by a soldier throughout history.

 

  • Produced a report, Review of Assessments on Historic Soldier Load Carriage,  on our findings in competing assessments, documenting the research methods of each historian.

  • Produced a spreadsheet that tracks each researchers estimates by year and weight, as well as pivot tables and charts depicting these comparisons.

 

Syrian Refugees in Jordan (2015)

TRAC at White Sands (WSMR) requested the UWAC to identify relevant data sources for Syrian migration into, out of, and within Jordan.  This data intends to populate a model that predicts 1) Syrian migration in and out of Jordan and 2) the impact of such migration on Jordanian stability.  This research project emphasizes addressing the first stage, with follow up research on the impact on Jordanian stability upcoming.  TRAC WSMR provided a list of variables that influences Syrian migration, variables used in the overall Complex Operations and Environment Model (COEM) and variables unique to the situation in Syria and Jordan.  The UWAC assists in COEM’s development by:

 

  • Assessing the overall availability of data, and inevitable data gaps for the provided variable list

  • Assessing the data sources listed in the provided COEM plans, adding any data sources that may be applicable to those listed  

  • Adding variables to the COEM for Syrian Migration and/or Government Instability unique to Arab World, based on UWAC expertise on Middle East and Arab culture, economic environment, and political patronage.

 

Aerial Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance Request Process (2013)

The Complex Operational Data Development Activity (CODDA) operation within the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center (TRAC) tasked the UWAC  to identify available data on Aerial Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) demands and requests.  One of the key objectives of the RFI is the identification of any areas in the ISR requirement process that leads to lost or culled requests.  The UWAC reached out to Joint Intelligence (J2) personnel within the individual COCOMs.  The UWAC arranged teleconferences with separate elements within Strategic Command (STRATCOM) and CODDA to allow an exchange of questions and concerns regarding the ISR requirements process.  The UWAC developed a visualization of the ISR request process which depicts the differences between formal and informal requests for ISR products.

 

 

Cultural Emphasis:

 

  • A Comparison of Arabic and English Translations of Pan Arab Websites

  • Afghanistan's Drug Economy

  • Attacking Urban Insurgents - Choking Off the Money Supply

  • Case Study of Urban Warfare - Compilation of Lessons Learned from the Chechen Wars

  • Case Study:  Insecurity in the Philippines

  • Chinese Military Tactics in Tibet

  • Colombia’s Counterdrug Operations

  • Complex Nature of Afghanistan's Economic Culture

  • Hacking Wars Between Sunni and Shia Muslims

  • Hezbollah and Suicide Terrorism - Case Study on Insurgent Adaptation in Irregular Warfare

  • Hezbollah in Latin America

  • Hezbollah in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Hezbollah's Communication Network

  • How the Iranian Media Help Build Support for Hezbollah

  • Implications of Iranian Media in Iraq

  • Insurgent Groups in Iran - Poor Prospects for Collaboration

  • Islamic Radicalization in US Prisons

  • Mexican Drug Cartels and Islamic Radicalism - Prospects for Collaboration

  • South American Groups Unlikely to Use Instability in Mexico to Attack the United States

  • Suicide Bombings in Urban Warfare - Trend Toward Female Suicide Bombers

  • Suicide Bombings in Urban Warfare - Trends in Motives and Targets

  • The Islamification of the Chechen Wars

  • Threat Analysis - Hamas and Hezbollah Sleeper Cells in the United States

  • Threat Finance at the Tactical Level in Afghanistan

  • Urban Jihad - Militant Exploitation of the Koran

 

Technology Emphasis: 

 

  • Aquaponic Technology in Urban Operations

  • Biometrics and Border Control - The Fight Against Terrorists

  • Contract Airborne Surveillance Support to Balkan Urban Operations

  • Emerging Nanotechnologies for Urban Warfare – Nanobatteries

  • Emerging Nanotechnologies for Urban Warfare - Piezoelectric Devices

  • Emerging Nanotechnologies for Urban Warfare - Shear Thickening Fluids

  • Emerging Technologies for Urban Warfare - Nanotechnology and Battlefield Medical Care

  • Emerging Technologies for Urban Warfare - New Carbon Fibers to Produce Stronger and Lighter Body Armor

  • Emerging Technologies for Urban Warfare - Radio Frequency Identification

  • Impact of Off-the-Shelf Global Telecommunications Technology

  • Improving Detection of Contraband at the U.S.-Mexico Border with Z Backscatter X-Ray Technology

  • Lessons from the U.S. Military for Civilian Bomb Technicians on IED Defeat

  • Nanotechnology Impacting Medical Diagnostics and Treatment on the Urban Battlefield

  • Nanotechnology in Urban Operations - Overview of Capabilities and the Way Forward

  • Potential Impact of Robotics on Combat Casualty Care

  • Research Comment - Rapid Recharge Lithium Battery

  • The IED Threat in America

  • The Medical Implications of a Bioterror Attack on a US Military Installation

  • Urban Warfare Technology - Using Pedometers to Measure Infantry Movement

  • Using Ocean Waves to Power Port Cities during Stability Operations

  • Utilizing UGV Technology for IED Defeat

 

Culture and Technology:

 

  • Active Denial System - Urban Applications and Cultural Considerations

  • Bioterror Martyrdom - Suffering Slaughter and Salvation

  • Cell Phone Use by Insurgents in Iraq

  • Considerations and Current Uses of Unmanned Ground Vehicles in Urban Operations

  • How a Boy Becomes a Martyr - The Dangers of Web 2.0 Technology

  • Influence Operations - Print on Demand Technology for Urban Ops

  • Next Generation Jihad - Web 3.0 and Urban Islamic Insurgency

  • Urban Camouflage - Military Applications and Cultural Consequences of Invisibility Cloaks

  • Urban Warfare - Learning Best Practices on Biometrics from Casino Operations

  • Virtual Worlds and Money Laundering

  • Virtual Worlds and Terrorist Attack Planning

  • Virtual Worlds and Their Implications for Future Urban Warfare

  • Web 2.0 - Twitter and Future Irregular Warfare

  • Web 2.0 and Enemy Recruitment

Training and Research:

 

  • A Discussion of Military Intelligence Analysis

  • Analytical Methods Discussion (Presentation)

  • History of Suicide Bombings (Presentation)

  • Incorporating Multidisciplinary Leadership Theories into Leadership Gaming

  • Information Operations - Lessons from Private Marketing Companies on Cultural Awareness

  • Middle East History (Presentation)

  • Organizational Commitment (Presentation)

  • Practical Advice on Team Collaboration - The UWAC Experience

  • Rhetoric of Analysis (Presentation)

  • Tradecraft – Common Mistakes (Presentation)

  • Tradecraft – Estimative Language (Presentation)

  • Tradecraft – Futures Analysis (Presentation)

  • Tradecraft – Statistical Modeling (Presentation)

  • Tradecraft – Writing Styles (Presentation)

  • Using SIGINT Collectors as HUMINT Interrogators

  • Who’s Who List of Social Science And Irregular Warfare

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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